21 June, 2005


Tales of Narrowness/Density/Depression/Forgiveness as pretext for Cultural Memory.

By Aristotelis Dimitrakopoulos

Greek version

Modern Greek architectural thought has largely focused on the for the defining elements of hellenicity “ελληνικότητα”. Academics attempt to express, explain and define it through re-workings of the virtues of Hellenism as formed in the various stages of our historical itinerary. On the other end, the masses formulate an ad-hoc-scape image of everyday urbanism serving everyday needs. Few are the points to which the fabricated and superficial arguments of intellect coincide with the daily practice of the masses.

The Greek city, as the collective field of cultural and social activity par excellence, perfectly reflects the above-mentioned gap. Almost unaffected from any type of impositions and prohibitions, the modern Greek city can be considered as the most authentic and sincere creation of indigenous conscience. Modern Greek urbanisation collectively and spontaneously mushroomed at times of relative political freedom, technological growth and economic potential. Compared to the scattered traditional settlement patterns and the isolated small communities created in eras of siege of the hellenic territories by innumerable conquerors, a modern Greek city is more spontaneous, consequently more authentic. It can be considered as a nearly tabula rasa creation governed solely by the local versions of generic development and the prevailing models of living.
Consequently, hellenicity can be defined through the examination of prevailing inclinations expressed in the city. The analysis here focuses on two ambiguous terms are drawn through the Modern Greek marvel of urbanisation: Synchorisi [Con-placement/Forgiveness/Jostle] and Stenochoria [Narrowness/Discomfort/Huddle] , terms that have served as urban organisation principles and growth processes, prescribing simultaneously the consequences of brutal, perpetual re-colonization of the Greek land in the era of modernization.

Discomfort derives from the lack of adequate space appropriate for the various everyday operations and leads to a physical feeling of narrowness and a psychological sense of sadness and grief.
Discomfort characterizes the traditional hellenic architecture in many localities, mainly imposed by the need of fortification and defence. Dimitris Filippidis [urbanist], referring to the island settlements of Greece states: For economy of space, streets and passages are minimal; there are not courtyards or squares and continues: Urban planning – the way we consider it today- was unknown in the pre-revolution period of Greece.

The direct meaning of synchorisi is con-placement, con-positioning, con-formation, and was used in previous times as such. The common new-greek meaning is forgiveness.The term means consent, condescension, acceptance, compromise, reprocess and is related to the notion of discomfort.

Forgiving the Discomfort: Retrospectively
Dimitris Karidis [urbanist], in his book Urban-planning Interpretation, publishes a confidential letter [dated 30th of June 1844], from a team of architects to the “Respectable Ministry of Foreign Affairs” and and the “Respectable Ministerial Council’. The letter indicates cheap plots, suitable for the construction of Public Buildings as Ministries, State Auditoria, Councils, Archives, etc. The text is accompanied by a rough topographical sketch of Constitution Square and its proximity indicating the House of Parliament and the proposed plots.
The “Ministerial Council” is prompted to proceed in the construction phase with the additional argument that almost all builders, carpenters, engineers, stone-carvers and other workers of the city suffer financially due to unemployment and suggest an impromptu reinforcement of construction activity as a provisory but direct solution. The letter explains further that the cost would be insignificant and that everyone would offer the lowest possible bids and enable optimum financing solutions to ease the public authorities.
This letter illustrates - indirectly - the significance of forgiveness. The randomized development of public real estate, as an action sponsored by the State itself, is presented as the sole remaining financial opportunity. It introduces defeatist and indecent perception of personal mediation for the occasional fulfilment of individualised needs, pretentiously worrying about common welfare.
Tightness as Ideology
The architects voluntarily state their intention for unpaid work, expressing a clearly unprofessional attitude. With remarkable honesty the architects confirm that their work will not be of high quality, and that the Government will be expected to make the least possible financial provisions for the works.
The laxity of intentions on the side of the architects becomes evident in the accompanying topographical diagrams on which a segmented line separates the area of construction from the area in which “no buildings are allowed” [δε συγχωρούνται οικοδομήματα]; where “con-placement” [synchorisi] is not allowed. This roughly drawn, thunder-like line fortuitously placed on the site drawing, is actually the only free-hand drawn boundary in the drawing, blurring the limits between development zones and preserved land in a vague and dubious manner. Respectively, according to the letter, the newly arrived urban population, denouncing their former rural occupations, have no alternative fields of employment but urban development pursuits –of ambiguous quality standards.
The letter expresses all the components and parameters that shape the modern-era morals. Opportunism, megalomania and individualism describe the modern-age hellenic dream: Indifference for the collective, the communal and the public, encroachment and promotion of own interests –even arbitrarily or illegaly.

An Evolution of Tightness
Architect Vassilis Tsagris reports: "Coercion and idleness were the major factors to the further development of the plan, since no Land Use planning has taken place".
Today, 160 years later, the local strategies of development have not changed much. Building activity remains the predominant economical potential in the country. Neither craftsmen nor workgroups have changed the patterns of amateurism, while urban planning authorities have proved unable to demonstrate coherent approach to the continuing phenomena. The only change is that the core of the “construction fever” has been shifted some kilometers away from Constitution Square, expanding the city of Athens –and respectively every Hellenic city- that overflows eating up rural soil.
In his book Modern Greek Architecture, D. Phillipidis states: "The urban anarchy very closely corresponds to the organisation of public governance, where continuous conflict between disparate institutions and authorities reproduces the chaos of the city in the centres of decisions. Commercialisation, the shifting from land to estate, a violent and fragmented growth of real estate, the eminent dilemma of precarious [illegal] building and the governmental inefficiency emerge as the basic parameters of a phenomenon that has been perpetuated to our days ".

Methodizing Melange
Individual development tactics are more or less based on principles evident also in governmental motives of decision-making. Andreas Karkavitsas [writer] describes the illegal settlement of Anafiotika in the area of Thission nearby the ancient Athenian Agora at the end of 19th century: On every single step one falls on broken pottery, oil jars, bulrush baskets in decomposition, pieces of soap and dirty water, steaming kettles and suspended wash lines. Through a dark and narrow opening of a house, from which dense smoke comes out, one can distinguish brass cooking utensils, chicken, rabbits and goats. If one, finally, raises his sight towards the sky, houses, windows, balconies and flowerpots hanging over his head will threaten him, all mixed up with nicely shaped female figures revealed through the windows. One might think that life in this famous settlement is horrible and its dwellers were forced by poverty to burry themselves in such a place. Yet if one asks them, their answers state completely the reverse…
Alexandros Papadiamantis [writer] in his short story The Neighbour With The Lute portrays the description of an ordinary complex of single rooms around a central court and common bathrooms and other auxiliary rooms: The rest of the buildings [were] six or seven single bedrooms, on ground level, old, run-down, miserable constructions built one next to the other, some with no windows at all and all of them made of flaccid walls… This poor fenced construction was located on a second street somewhere between Psiri and Tatsi.

Origins of Arbitrariness
The study of traditional methods of property expansion is of great significance in approaching the phenomenon. G. Shuttle reports for the case of the province of Mani in Southern Peloponnese: When a local family decided to relocate in a new place outside the settlement or to exclude certain opponents, they built a single tower [called xemoni] in a strategic place of the countryside. This of course was a reason for war. After the family’s permanent relocation, they could build new houses around the tower and thus create a new small settlement. ... After its constitution in 1828, the Greek State attempted to regulate basic issues of building development, in order to control and limit the reasons of violent local conflicts. The commands given to the local authorities where as follows: " From now on, it is prohibited to build defensive constructions (...)towers or houses in the fields, with the exception of exclusive storage huts”. Despite these directives and later the interventions of the army, people continued to build according to the local criteria, until the last decades of 19th century ". The difficulties therefore for the acceptance of law emerge already from the early years of the Modern Greek State and the first attempts for the establishing and institutionalizing the issue of building permit.
The aggressive attitude towards public space is characteristic in the older settlements of Attica. Ekaterini Dimitsanoy Kremezi [architect], writes in the book Greek Architecture: the secluded lifestyle of an Arvanites rural family of Attica, spreading from Messogia up to Salamina Island, did not prioritize the construction of communal oper-air spaces. Openings to the street are rare. Streets are created without prior planning, without trees, erratic, without any sense of visual perspective, with tall boundary walls on the perimeter. The description corresponds to contemporary topographic memories in the outskirts of Greek cities.

The Ideology of Arbitrariness
Aristeidis Romanos, writer of Illegal Settlements in Athens, 1969, reports: The particular strengths that characterize and unify the old settlements... are absent from the contemporary senses of arbitrary building. What is really missing is the so-called Wisdom of the Vernacular.
In our era, the contemporary “no-limits” anonymous building is judged as audacious and monstrous arbitrariness, while our building heritage that is not subject to any institutionalized architectural or urban regulations, is fictitiously idealised, considered as “authentic” expression of talent, virtuosity, inventiveness and popular wisdom. However this powerful schism was shaped collectively via unforced preferences of these very communities.
The modern city dwellers are nostalgically referring to these traditional settlements. However, the residents of these very communities, at some moment, preferred to migrate en masse and move into depressing urban flats of limited surface, sacrificing fervently and consciously all of what we idealize and call now as the “advantages of traditional life in the province”.

Contruction Mutation
In the recent history of our country, the collectively produced urban creations of consecutive post-war generations are characterized from radically differentiated material and technical, land-planning, morphological, typological and aesthetic notions. The inspired traditional building, which is held as enchantingly organic, wise and environmentally compatible has been replaced with the eminent modern reinforced concrete ferrous structure [similar to the Corbusian Dom-ino House], the plastered masonry infill walls and the semi-prefabricated window frames.
The emergence of industrial materials and construction techniques has prompted the architectural conscience to a schism: in the emotional memory of common people modern building remains an unfamiliar phenomenon, while in the their reason and in everyday practice it constitutes a fully acceptable financial and technical convention. The phenomenon brings explicit traces of schizophrenic cultural ethics: The almost instantaneous material and technical mutation of Greek construction industry from tradition to modernity took place in a personalised, small scale development reality. This situation, ruled by the harsh conditions of free market, is defined by the average investor –from the lower and upper middleclass -consequently via an open process in which the fundamental decisions on construction strategies are consciously defined in an individual basis. In most cases the customer / investor is the very owner /dweller and not professional enterprises.

The radical change of the Greek construction market after the war is intriguing. In the United States for instance, contemporary housing continues the old Anglo-Saxon building tradition, conforming to the balloon-frame prototype based on timber products. In Greece the historic construction methods were instantly abandoned and the reinforced concrete technology with brick infill walls spread so quickly that all the morphological gamut of domestic architectural heritage shrunk to a unique absolute building type: that of a badly executed and overgrown dom-ino house.
The phenomenon henceforth has been solidified so intensely that the image of the traditional house has been re-defined accordingly: the traditional building emerges as a typical modern construction with some appliqué extras, such as the elaborate slops of the roof, the neo-rustic balusters and neo-historicist fencing, rough stucco, or wood-framed saddle roofs. From there on, the forced preservation of traditional morphology depends exclusively on explicit legislative decrees drafted for specific locations, while these exact morphological idioms constituted a spontaneous and obvious architectural expression only two generations ago. The innovative building materials of the highly specialized modern building industry, served to anything but to the enrichment of architecture and aesthetics.
The import of western technology and the newly introduced notion of land as commodity –the growth of real estate- resulted to an overwhelming reduction of possibilities. The fragmented and amateur building activity could theoretically act positively, as citizens were offered an opportunity to contribute equally and substantially to the development of the built space carrying their individual will: each family was able to create its own residence based on need under the confinements of a common legal frame. The alternative reality, of the economically advanced countries, prescribes the central co-ordination of development tactics from commercial colossuses, and is accused by modern critics for callous indifference to the fundamental parameters of environmental quality, individuality, sustainability, and organizational autonomy.
The domestic model of arbitrary and randomized urban growth generated the modern monstrous complexes of the Greek urban centers. The outcome practically vanishes any possibility of incorporating the personalized construction model as an alternative to the uprising status of centralized development processes imposed by speculative real estate companies and construction corporations.

Pseudo-progressive Enthusiasm
Modern Greek urbanisation has demonstrated “ultra-progressive” ethics reaching the fallacy of thoughtless embrace of anything “new”, lacking a wider and collective perspective. Greek city totters as a still-fresh and fluid entity of heterogeneous morphologies operating under an overwhelmingly homogeneous organization mode, still unruled, still lagging of potential other than profit.
The prevailing economic transaction patterns and the common ethics of development indirectly but clearly prescribe the principal form-making processes that have shaped modern building typologies locally. Thus, the speculative fragmentation of the urban land to small-scale properties and the arbitrary implementation of “private” roads –in addition to the official plan of the city- constitute parameters that immediately determine the size of buildings and the tendency for ultra-concentration, agglomeration and discomfort caused by this status of narrowness. The eternal repetition of the generic building type, the block of flats [polykatoikia], declares a status of inertia that cancels any processes defining urban identity. Introversion is evident in the estabished building typologies- so that each building is organized as an independent, ultimately defensive entity dis-relating to any public spaces in the adjacency. If density and unpredictability constitute central characteristics of a workable city, then the common phenomena of arbitrary appropriation of public space lead inevitably to the dissolution of all senses of urbanity.
The notion of density, as defined in the Greek terrain, is not related to the sterile, the methodical or the institutionalized nature of modernism. This arbitrarily created density is particularly resilient, as it is precisely based on the powerful presence of personalized property ownership: the antipode is the American reality, where buildings are leased for a certain period and are then regained as municipal or state property, re-directed later to colossal real estate corporations. The sight of an abandoned building is extremely rare in Greece, while in the States a smashing percentage of real estate remains obsolete for years even in hyper-dense urban enclaves, such as Manhattan.

Collectiveness as Accomplice
Arson, deforestation, possession and expropriation constitute the elementary stages of colonization. The domestic phenomena of urbanization are placed on a similar stratum. The arbitrary expansion of the Greek city consciously and collectively decomposes any urban and geographical barrier by the appropriation of public rural land by individuals aiming ultimately at the legalization of the precarious property in the name of some supposed right to safeguard personal rights. The relation between urban and natural environment is intimately shaped through visceral methods of imposition and impulsive arbitrariness. The masses of people that lived so far hidden in the domestic settlements of defensive nature re-inhabit the Greek terrain under this perspective. The Greek city functions as a wave, as a moving front that swallows the natural landscape overriding all topographical features.
The most powerful thesis of the post-war Modern Greek architectural and building reality is not related to the pioneering creations of the golden decade of the mid ‘50s and ‘60s, neither to neo-historicism; critical regionalism; pseudo-rationalistic perseverance or traditionalist ruminations; it is directly related to illegality. The means of achievement is the parasitic "synchorisi" [mergence/immersion/densification/suppression/forgiveness] leading to a status of discomfort, that is then legalised [forgiven] by public authorities.

The Furtive Manifesto of the Greek City
The practices of real estate property development are withheld by households and small-scale building enterprises. The domestic architectural scene has entered a definite and precise process of shrinkage, directing the urban environment to a status of seediness.
If the typology of the Modern Greek city is based on the eternal repetition of urban apartment slabs, then its ideology is organised with absolute priority to illegality and to randomised land possession. With exceptional assiduity, almost every domestic construction project is shaped and articulated prioritizing undisclosed illegality, or, if the public relations of the investor or owner allow, obvious and grandiose illegality.

Semi-outdoor Spaces, Court-Anglaises, Basements and Playrooms
All locally practicing architects recognize that the above eminent official and legally defined terms –through building code- in reality stand for illegal mezzanines, swimming pools, attics, extra bedrooms and penthouses. If ideally architecture is shaped through the expression of environmental responsiveness and cultural characteristics enhancing the quality of life, then everyday domestic architecture is directed towards illegality through false crises of pragmatism. A good deal of building projects use illegality as a prevailing principle while most executed projects are composed with a unique typological criterion and ideology: the maximization of illegality.
It is not the architectural principles that create buildings in the way the pioneers of modernism envisaged; it is not even the building code that produces architecture: architecture obeys to the hedonism of arbitrariness, to a secret manipulation of building regulations under the perspective of something peculiar, something more [footage-wise], always more.
The most popular and remarkable planning exercise in Modern Greek architectural practice is the official submission –for building permit- of a complete drawing set that substantially withholds the real or applied –illegal- design.

Anti-myth: Urban Debauch
In the Greek countryside, in the village or the town, the term building permit, until recently was nonexisting. Respectively, all property titles were verbal –in effect they still are. Our sustainable architectural heritage, the so-called picturesque, beautiful, wise architectural creations, abruptly commodified by the contemporary service economy, were the product of the “everyday people” . In relation to this, it is surprising that the contemporary built-scape produced again by “everyday people” in the era of modernity has mutated into an epidemic of anti-aesthetics. The “everyday people”, previously creators of traditional architecture have in our times shifted their priorities, becoming the creators of monstrosity in an era of massive urbanisation.
The [former] arbitrary urban zones of Perama, Ano Liossia or Penteli and the eternal arbitrary extensions of city suburbs, did not inherit any of the charm of the –under legal standards- arbitrary construction of historical settlements. It appears that the migrants, henceforth turned to trespassers and appropriators of public property, transformed the lust for building into an individualized version of investment strategy: the continuous expansion and concealment of their modern-day belongings – no more their farming parcels but their apartments and urban real estate- from the eye of the law. It all happens in the name of some supposed poverty right or more precisely of the systematic and pathological grumbling, regardless of economic class.

The Hedonism of Arbitrariness
The former appropriators of rural land re-emerge as contractors. The legalised fully-arbitrary outskirts substitute the city itself. The collectiveness of illegal activity reinforces its “natural” provenience. The accomplice in the consolidated mentalities is completely neutralized. In his novel titled "Argo", 1935, Giorgos Theotokas comments on the crisis of Greek society through dialogues of disparate persons. He writes: "Yes, Hellas was to blaim for it all. (It is very difficult to admit that villain is found mainly in onself, that one’s soul was not strong enough to resist. It is so difficult, that one shouldn’t even think about it. It is more convenient to put the blame on Greece therefore). Miserable, bitter, malicious, modest, humble without beauty, ill-faced, ill-mannered, poisoned, with the most insane ambitions and the sentiments of a cruel servant, Greece with only small harbours, only small boats, small houses, small matters, small passions, the small, microscopic lives, Greece, the hell of smallness –what a shame!"
Beyond the triviality of blame and aphorism, the permanent condition of weakness of modern Greece –unable to correspond in undefined and blurry idealistic requirements and grandeur models- becomes explicit in the above passage. This pattern of lost glory is met systematically in the modern-greek literature. Dimitris Hatzis describes a society whose "frames are torn" where "a world of deprival and poverty who so suddenly comes in touch with wealth that makes him dizzy, aggressive uprooted and lost”, creating "the non-existent place".

Guiltlessness and Daily Strive
In the early 70s, architect Aristeidis Romanos, reports: In the few years that we are a free nation, private wealth changed many times hands and thus there was no time for a bourgeois class to be formed and gain conscience strong enough to prevent it from being fallible to the craze of ephemeral fashion […] The peasant mentality therefore and the lust to gain money via illegal actions -inherited from the years of the nazi siege- are the two more basic traits of our villain taste".
Central parameter in the desire for construction and urbanization is the total rejection of everything traditional and the healing of the lesion: the provincial descent. The complete ignorance, the loss of conscience and the lust for modernization and urbanization are clearly declared in multiple fields of expression and activity. Widespread life-style prototypes are consolidated and proclaimed through the post-war Greek cinema. The typical innocent comedy scripts present the social agenda of post-war years through the cinematographic stereotypes: The poor, unlucky, ignorant, lazy, tricky, peasant character marries the beautiful, good, innocent, rich bride, daughter of a ship or a factory owner via unexpected chance, which leads him to be absorbed into the bourgeois class, and to be valorized with "first table" in the glamorous folk-music halls of the era. The peasant and lower middle class representative appears mentally armed with all he needs to conquer the absolute: the sirens of a hedonist modern urban life.
The exploitation of circumstances leads to the easy defense of pestering as a strategy to achieve goals that enables the heroes from the hellenic province to end up living from the wealth of the old bourgeois class. Personal interest is officially more valuable than social impact. In a game-of-luck illusion, love and happiness keep pace with rich origin.

The Bipolar: Megalomania and Short-mind-ness
The full acceptance of hedonism eliminates every other range of principles. The uninhibited unemployed go-getter who becomes a hero constitutes a natural situation, as the perception that fortune can only be inherited and business dexterity only related to pure profit and the exercise of power. Growth of business cycle is never a goal, creating a complex of inferiority that undermines and reverses the total potential of economic growth. However, the lust for grandeur remains: Dimitris Filippidis comments: arbitrary constructions are characterised by a disparate architecture that reflects the modern pluralism of superior incomes.
Konstantinos Tsoukalas, in his book The Greek Tragedy, comments: The special growth of Greece is substantially founded on a wide professional parasitism and has as derivative the spread of consumerism, that, in the case of superior incomes, leads to exhibitionism.
Kimonas Laskaris writes in his book titled Elitism in Architecture in 1956: In the polykatoikia, elitism strikes with baroque-inspired facades falsely decorated with any kind of lanterns, balusters and interior ornaments that emboss the picture of an uncertain and tired race, away from the priceless traditions of this country. While the latter phrase refers in the arbitrary lower middle class, the significance of disparate and pluralistic is illustrated in the following approach to the work of Dimitris Pikionis.

Tracing the Greek Character
In his book Dimitris Pikionis - The Architect, Zisimos Lorentzatos mentions that Pikionis gathered his material copying in countless pieces of paper "Pieces of poetry and pieces of literature -dead or alive- from all the times and all the regions of Greek language.
Pikionis, whose representative works are the Loumpardiari Complex on Filopappou Hill and later the Ghari Residence, reconnects the authority of high architecture to the aesthetics of the precarious dweller. In his works, the tearing; the lesion of fragmentation; the significance of the coincidental; the con-placement [synchorisi] of disparate members; the notion of discontinuity; the lack of logical sequence; the psychological burst equal to that of a scrap collector, of the lover of incompatible discoveries; the accumulation of building remnants; the primitive horror vacui, are re-introduced and re-established as positive artistic expression, based on a supposedly “authentic” instinct.
The relation between whole and fragment remains inexplicable, in a typological as well as in an intellectual level, expressing some type of mental discomfort and traumatic nostalgia. The fragmentation, the incoherence, the inconsistency, the arbitrariness are idealised features functioning in "safe" conditions so that they can be characterized as innocent traits: utilized as features of formal articulation, of external decoration. Should we have in mind that by definition his main work concerns the decorative finishing of prestigious public or private projects.
These works constitute imitations of folk art that, in the safe mode of economic prosperity transforms into an supposedly indigenous game advancing notions of populism.

The Aesthetism of Perama
In his speech in the Third Architectural Congress, Pikionis expresses his admiration for the self-trained folk-creator that draws his inspiration from "folk creativity”, where the matrix of all ideas lay, reflecting the definite values of a nation". Yet, if the meaning of arbitrariness and disparate conjoining is drawn to an operational status in which intense economic and technical weaknesses become prominent, then the elaborate marble plates, the sculpted and ceramic fragments reminiscent of historic findings are turned into undulated cement plates, metal sheeting, plancks, cracked cement block and broken tiles which get us back to the aesthetics of arbitrary communities like Perama.
The re-use of mutilated members of historic monuments serving decorative purposes on a new building, is a domestic phenomenon appearing already from the post-roman years in the Hellenic province and can be viewed as evidence of poor cultural growth.

Aphorisms do not offer liberation. The analysis of morals and development processes might turn out to be particularly useful. The multi-dimensional approach to precarious urbanisation modes and land appropriation phenomena need to be questioned by the intellect of architecture. The clarification of the relation between the natural/public and man-made/appropriated might constitute fundamental steps towards the formation of some sort of strategy that could potentially alter the domestic developmental practices and help these relate to the sofar artificial idealistic and intellectual convictions for the nature of Modern Greek morals.
We definitely behave as migrants within our own land. The bigger concern for the eminent “lost homelands” burdens our daily practice. The shocking absence of a concept for the nature of this colonization process confronted deliberately the mechanistic and simultaneously unresolved obsession for construction. Does this situation lead to a non-reversible status of urban decay? Does this lead to a status of panic or to a labyrinth that eternally postpones the evolution of cohesiveness?
It is likely that the promise of tomorrow precisely lies in what is presented as absurd or eminent in first contact: in the mental power that is wasted in the perseverance of fraud, but which probably encloses the promise of more powerful intellectual dynamics which currently appear simply latent.

The text is based on a presentation of Aristotelis Dimitrakopoulos in the annual Do.Co.Mo.Mo. symposium "East and West in Modern Architecture" that was organized as part of the activities of the Greek group of Do.Co.Mo.Mo. under the aegis of the School of Architecture of the University of Patras on May 8 2004, at the University Campus of Rio.

Aristotelis Dimitrakopoulos
Professor of Architecture
Savannah College of Art & Design
(for the 2004 Do.Co.Mo.Mo. Conference. )

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